Staying current with your profession is a way through which many professionals today are opting to stay ahead of the constantly growing curve of the health care knowledge. In a world of rapidly changing technology, it is becoming mandatory for care givers to broaden their knowledge on their profession. Nursing continuing education classes ensure that nurses are able to provide the best level of care and medical attention to their patients. Human beings in their quest to make themselves better constantly get the urge to improve on what they have to offer. Being stagnant in a profession may thus cause boredom and a feeling of insufficiency. For those that are already in the this profession, nursing continuing education is made available.Today it is used by RN to enable them to advance their careers and keep up with the ever-competitive medical field. Keeping up with the board of nursing requirements ensures that a registered nurse is able to keep advancing in his or her career. In some situations, ongoing education in is necessary for any registered nurse to maintain his or her license. A nurse might even find it necessary to get an ADN. There exist both the traditional institution methods of the nursing continuing education and the online type of education. Both of these, depending on one’s availability, result in a qualified nurse becoming more competitive and in a better position to offer the best form of medical attention to their patients.How a Nursing continuing education program is builtA Nursing continuing education program can include self study, on the job training, academic courses and seminars or conferences. In most cases, a continuing education certificate is issued upon the conclusion of a course. The nursing continuing courses exist in a number of forms. One should give consideration to courses that fit his or her learning style and career goal as at the end of the day. Thus depending each individual’s requirements remain unique from the next person’s. On the institution, one is able to benefit tremendously from the programs put in place.Some of these programs include the follow the evidence to up to date practice. This program is put into place to ensure that nurses are given the opportunity to get equipped with knowledge about evidence- based practice and strategies so as to increase evidence based practice in their clinical work environment be it in a hospital, nursing homes, specialty doctor hospitals, private care agencies or even in physical therapy settings. Another example of a program of the Nursing Continuing Education is the ‘From Distress to De-stress’ with stress management. The goal and aim of this is to enable nurses to handle stress in their working environments in a better way.Importance Of Nursing continuing educationThe importance of engaging oneself continuing education for nurses has for years, actually since the beginning of the profession, been increasingly emphasized. The advantages of the same can be stated as majorly revolving around improvement of knowledge and skills in the nursing field. The challenges existing include keeping the nurses up to date with the changes in their field of nursing and ensuring that patients get to benefit from the skills gained from the same. The nursing profession measure continuing nursing education on the basis of Continuing Education Units (C.E.U.s) it is worth taking note that one C.E.U is equivalent to about ten hours of approved further education.Online classes in Nursing continuing Education are more flexible thus make them attractive to nurses seeking to upgrade their qualifications, deepen their knowledge of the profession or even get specialized in a given segment of the nursing profession. From the above, it is evident that more nurses will decide to further their knowledge through his program, Nursing continuing Education, will definitely enrich their career paths.
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Home School Education – Advantages and Disadvantages
Why Parents Choose a Home School EducationAn increasing number of children today are receiving a home school education. The reasons for making the choice to home school their kids varies from family to family but there are three main reasons why parents are removing their children from the public school system and giving them a home school education.The first reason is that the public education system in the United States is struggling to provide a proper education for the nation’s children with out of date text books, run down school buildings and inadequate equipment. Provision of a home school education enables the parents to have control over the quality of the educational materials used by their children and the general conditions in which they are educated.The second reason is that parents wish to assume more control over the influences their children will be exposed to. This is often on the basis of religious grounds but, very often, it is simply because a home school education will ensure the child learns the values upheld by the family and is taught from an early age what behavior is appropriate. Unfortunately, many public schools have a poor reputation for instilling good discipline in students. This often results in badly behaved children disrupting lessons and preventing their peers from getting the full benefit of classes. Discipline and the upholding of proper standards of behavior is an important part of a home school education.The third reason many parents choose to give their children a home school education is fear for their safety. Violence is on the increase everywhere and the public school system has not escaped this trend. Violence in the public education system is getting worse and the individual acts of violence are more serious. Since the shocking events at Columbine High School there have been further tragedies involving firearms where teachers and students have been injured or killed. A home school education ensures the safety of children who would otherwise be seriously at risk of harm.The Disadvantages of Opting For HomeschoolingProviding a home school education is not simply a matter of parental choice. In most cases the state education board of the state in which the family resides will have to approve a decision to give a child a home school education. The person taking on the responsibility of homeschooling must be certified to be a home teacher, the curriculum must follow the state curriculum, and the text books and other educational materials to be used must be approved by the state. Although this might seen like undue interference in what is a matter of personal choice, the state has a responsibility to ensure that all children receive an adequate standard of education and checks will be made to ensure that any child being kept away from public school is being properly educated.A home school education might mean that a child is deprived of certain opportunities which would have been available within the public school system. There could be difficulties in providing facilities for athletic children to realize their potential. Musically talented children could be similarly disadvantaged. In some states there is provision for children receiving a home school education to take part in amenities such as being able to attend sports lessons and join after-school clubs. However, the level of assistance provided to homeschooling parents is not uniform and varies a lot from state to state.The final potential disadvantage to affect children receiving a home school education is that they will not develop the social skills which will be important as they grow up. Social interaction with their peers and with adults outside the family is essential if a child is going to grow up with a properly balance personality and a reasonable level of social skills. These developmental issues can be fairly easily overcome if the child lives in a state where homeschooling parents are given support and the child receiving a home school education is accepted into classes and extra-curricular activities.The decision to keep a child out of the public education system is not one any parent would make lightly and any weighing up of the pros and cons must take into account the level of support the state will provide. However, if the public school system continues to deteriorate, the number of children receiving a home school education is bound to increase.
Study to Investigate Perception and Role of Teachers,Parents,Management About Religious Education
One’s education is not complete without a study of comparative religion or the history of religion and its relationship to the advancement of civilization. The purpose of this study is to foresee the perception of teachers, parents and management about religious education at primary schools. Religion and beliefs gives awareness of our norms and values. Religious education teaches the ethics of living a peaceful and loving life. It teaches individuals, families, communities that how they should take decisions for living a better life full of peace and harmony. Patrick (2006) said that religious practice benefits individuals, families, and communities and thus the whole world.Religious education is very important for students at early ages. It teaches them how to response others and tells them ethics of living a better life. Religion plays a significant role in history and society as well, study about religion is essential to understand both the nation and the world. It also makes great beneficence to other parts of school syllabus such as liberty, civil, crafts and disciplines for supportable development. John et al (2003) mentioned in his report that the curriculum needs to cater the child’s affective, aesthetic, spiritual, moral and religious needs in order to develop the individual’s full potential. RE plays specific role in developing spiritual and moral values of a child as well as to be aware to knowledge of God.
Religious education make student broad minded but it happens when teachers teaches them with these clear concepts and practices about how to practice these thoughts as well as to communicate and deal with others in adverse community. Religious Education teachers need to have in depth knowledge of content and pedagogy as well as need to have quality assessment skills to deliver effective instructions as they are the pillars of teaching process. Dinama et al. (2016)Liagkis (2016) supported the concept that pedagogically, all instructions are determined in the curriculum sequentially but religious education teachers are responsible to deliver effective teaching to learners to make them able to practiceGeoff Teece (2009) proposed an article on learning about religion and learning from religion or religious education. In this article researcher said there is a lack of clarity in terms of learning and actually mean from the religion. Researcher also argued that the term religion is understood by applying a second order explanatory frame work that actually refers to the concept of study of religion such as rituals and myth. Religious education or religious instruction was a serious concern in education system.To figure it out Gardner (1980) gave a solution that, not to make students committed towards any of the religion and instead of this teach about the events and lifestyles guided in different religions. The question arises after this given solution that is it appropriate to grow students up with the brought minds in sense of their beliefs in educational scenario? Or is it better not to go against the grain and follow the traditional style accordingly? The explorers of these questions were Gardner (1993) & McLaughlin & Hare (1994)Leahy & Laura in 1997 gave their notion that religion is not restricted to be taught in inflexible environment. Religious concepts can be integrated in other subjects of curriculum to enhance knowledge (P.329).Leahy (1998) considered that should the parents be allowed to take decision about their child’s learning method of religious education by censoring the curriculum of school but she herself deny it because it will spoil the rights of other religious groups and kill the ways for different groups producing social imbalance.According to John M.Hull there is a part for the school in preparing pupils to take an informed and thoughtful part in a pluralistic culture. When the society contains not one but several religions, the necessity for a thoughtful study of religion becomes greater, not less. (1984, p. 48.)While standards such as admiration, acceptance, and treating people with kindness are clearly important plus constantly have been, new public currently furthermore prerequisite to understand the causes of, and possible solutions to, complex and global issues. (Nord and Haynes, 1998, p. 36)Ethical reflection contributes to that understanding by helping young people see that tolerance of others is not enough; that a global, interconnected world calls for harmony by others whose outcomes and futures are intertwined, and that they want to be prepared to turn, not just personally, but also collectively and politically. (Freiler, 2009, p.15)Susan D. Holloway in his article “The Role of Religious Beliefs in Early Childhood Education: Christian and Buddhist Preschools in Japan”. Off and on in western writing the Japanese are mark out as a non-religious people apart from it Japanese are considered the faithfulness that conflict with Americans. Japanese show up more prepared to put together and meet the doctrine that often appealing Shinto at the beginning and wedding whereas the Buddhism stand with silence/external rest through in spite of circumstances that work to darken the noticeable philosophical contribution of different doctrine, definite direction of Christians ideology and Buddhism are observed that pressure the school of Japanese.
Objectives of the study:
To find out teacher’s perception about religious teaching as an aspect of education.
To identify the role of teachers for children character development.
To find out parent’s perception about religious teaching.
To explore the role of school management for teaching religious subjects in curriculum.
Methodology of the Study:
A quantitative research design was selected to conduct this study. In this study questionnaires were used as a research tool. In the educational research field questionnaires are worthily considered as a popular technique mostly used for investigating the opinions, attitudes, perceptions and preferences.Questionnaires constitute an important and popular technique that is widely used to study the attitudes, opinions, perceptions and preferences in the field of educational research. Muijs (2004), Reid (2006)Oppenheim (1992: 100) described questionnaires as: “The questionnaire is an important instrument of research, a tool for data collection. It is considered a set of questions arranged in a certain order and constructed according to specially selected rules”.[Creswell (2008), Cohen et al (2007), Raid (2006)] all categorized questionnaires information as there are three types of data that may be collected about respondents through using questionnaires including Factual, Behavioral and attitudinal. Demographic characteristics of respondents are covered in factual questions; behavioral questions are used to investigate about the actions, habits, and experiences of participants; and to know about interest, belief, values, opinions and attitudes investigator uses attitudinal questions. In this study research tool is consisted on two elements from mentioned categories including factual and attitudinal questions.Three questionnaires were designed for each category of respondents. Respondents of the study were teachers, parents and management belongs to primary schools of Karachi. Total number of statements was 10 for each category of respondents. 30-40 minutes time duration was decided to fill questionnaires after the pilot study. Closed ended statements were used in questionnaires and respondents were asked to give their point of view by chosen rubrics of Likert Scale (Strongly Agree, Agree, to some extent, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree).
1. Pilot testing of Questionnaires
Oppenheim (1992: 48) mentioned this “everything about the questionnaire should be piloted; nothing should be excluded, not even the type face or the quality of the paper”. 50 respondents were selected for pilot testing of questionnaires (20 teachers, 20 parents and 10 management staff). Piloting the questionnaires was aimed to ensure the layout of questionnaires, to cater the language difficulties, to check instructions needed to improve and to improve validity and reliability of questionnaires. The feedback received through pilot testing provides the clarity about statements of questionnaire, layout, instructions and validity as well.
2. Sample selection
Teachers, school management of primary schools and parents of primary grade children of Karachi, Pakistan were selected as a population of this study. Sample was selected district wise; there are 6 districts in Karachi namely Central Karachi, East Karachi, South Karachi, West Karachi, Malir Karachi and Korangi Karachi. By using convenient quota sampling technique 4 districts out of 6 were selected including East Karachi, South Karachi, Malir Karachi and Korangi Karachi. Total 200 sample size was selected for conducting this study. 50 samples were intended to select from each district approximately. For desired sample primary schools were selected through searching on internet and developed communication with concern authorities of all schools for asking their willingness to fulfill research needs.
3. Data collection procedure
Researcher visited schools district wise one by one and distributed 250 questionnaires to participants more than actual sample size to get maximum return rate. 30 out of 250 participants did not return their questionnaires. 220 participants returned questionnaires on time.20 questionnaires out of 220 were excluded due to incomplete responses. So finally researcher got desired sample size 200 out of 250. Remaining questionnaire responses was 40 (principals, wise principals), 100 teachers and 60 parents selected collectively. Whereas, 10 (principals, wise principals), 25 teachers and 15 parents were selected from each district. 5. Analysis of Data:SPSS version 21 was used for data analysis procedure. 5-Likert scale responses were converted into numeric scale 1-5 to enter the data in SPSS. Through using SPSS researcher calculated the frequencies and percentages. After calculation, result is presented through generating graphs showing frequencies and percentages of responses of each category.Analyzing the findings of research questionnaire statements is given below.1. Management CategoryStatementFrequencies & PercentagesStronglyDisagreeAgreeTo someextentDisagreeStronglyDisagreeReligious education defines Virtue, Grace, Law and Sin.1435%2255%410%—-Religious education is a part of each individual’s statutory learning pathway.1640%2050%410%—-Religious education gives importance to moral values in life.1742.5%1845%512.5%—-The school should have no role in the religious formation of the child.–922.5%820%1537.5%820%It should be the priority to have a religious education in the school.512.5%1947.5%820%820%–Religious topic in curriculum enhances the explanation of the spiritual side of life.512.5%2460%615%512.5%–Content is related to the student’s life during teaching.820%2357.5%922.5%—-The curriculum is adopting instructional approaches to meet student’s religious need.820%2050%1230%—-Curriculum is supporting their responsibility to educate children through sharing resources.615%2460%1025%—-There are authorities in school to access overall effectiveness of religious practices.–2357.5%1742.5%—-2. Teacher CategoryStatementFrequencies & PercentagesStronglyAgreeAgreeTo someextentDisagreeStronglyDisagreeReligious education gives importance to moral values in life.3535%5151%1414%—-Religious education is a part of each individual’s statutory learning pathway.4040%4949%1111%—-Religious tradition cannot survive without recalling the chain of memory.3030%4848%1616%66%–The school should have no role in the religious formation of the child.–2222%1919%3838%2121%You being a teacher relate content to the student’s life during teaching.2323%4646%2626%55%–Teachers are adopting instructional approaches to meet student’s religious need.1414%4040%2929%1717%–Opportunities are provided to students to investigate religion practices and teaching explanation.1818%4646%2727%99%–Schools are creating opportunities to persuade parents and teachers to play the role of religious educators.1818%4242%1717%2323%–Schools are providing spiritual support to enable staff and students to understand the concept of faith.1717%3131%2929%2323%–There are authorities in school to access overall effectiveness of religious practices.–3737%2323%2727%13133. Parent CategoryStatementFrequencies & PercentagesStronglyAgreeAgreeTo someextentDisagreeStrongly DisagreeMy child shows enthusiasm for the teaching of R.E (Religious Education)1321.7%2440%1525%813.3%–The teaching of RE has an impact on my child and is done well at this school1016.7%2948.3%1321.7%813.3%–The school acts quickly on parents’ suggestions and concerns–1830%1728.3%1220%1321.7%The attitude of your child to Religious Education is positive1220%2338.3%1626.7%915%–You are satisfied to the teaching of Religious Education at your child school711.7%2745%1525%1118.3%–I provide good level of care and support to my child at home1321.7%3253.3%1525%—-My child participates in religious programs.–2135%2745%1220%–I provide religious enrich environment to my child at home1525%2846.7%1728.3%—-I am providing spiritual support to enable my child to understand the concept of faith.1220%3253.3%1626.7%—-Schools are creating opportunities to persuade parents and teachers to play the role of religious educators.1321.7%2745%1016.7%1016.7%–It is interesting to note that most of the people supported RE and learning about religion. Also support for RE helping children to understand a range of religious values and beliefs. But some gaps are found in management role in adapting instructional approaches in curriculum to meet student’s religious needs, not providing enough resources and absence of authorities to monitor effectiveness of religious practices.Somewhere teachers and parents also blame management for not providing spiritual support and not creating enough opportunities for teachers to play the role of religious educators. Hence, findings provide clear perception of teachers, parents and management about RE.6. DiscussionReligion has direct relationship with the learning habits of an individual. It may directly influence the belief, attitude and ideology of an individual. Due to this fact the educators always try to devise curriculum keeping in view the religious backgrounds of the students, through which personal, social and moral development of an individual may fulfill.According to Flourish (2013): Establishment of religious education is a fundamental part of national curriculum for primary education. It could astonishing but it is all about the truth of some of unique people showed religious relations with socially intimation and they also have discussion that religion is not applicable or transferable whether in workplace or schools. Meanwhile many believe religious education encourages students within the careful faith.For centuries religious education has been supported the values of many qualities like intelligence, fairness, respect and standard for living styles. Religion in education showed appreciating effects among the children.Religious education is also familiarized with the changing in the environment including practicing and outcome religious authoritarian in nearby society as well as globally (QCDA (1993). One of the major obstacles has been recognized that to give respect and consciousness for diverse religious customs and beliefs is a sign of an effectual learning environment. It develops skills in students to deal with different religious perspectives present in a society where they live.To come to know about others belief is not enough for students. Beside the review the cognitive domain, also promoting and contributory aspects of affective domain must be the part of learning environment. Student- centered activities should be used to fulfill the developmental needs of students and activities that are used in learning atmosphere should be according to age of students. Celebrations, traditions, dishes or role plays may be the source of getting experiences.Beside all, it should provide an opportunity to express what must be learned. Therefore, an effective religious education environment must be student centered, engaging and relevant, respectful of diversity, inviting and inclusive, participatory, interactive and collaborative, reflective and celebratory, integrative, challenging and inquiry based. 7. Conclusion:It is true that it is quite difficult for the teachers to integrate religious diversity in learning but we could make an effort to devise our curriculum in such a way that caters the religious needs of an individual. To be able to live in society of diverse religions it is important to understand and acquire religious concepts and beliefs.Mainly it is the role of school management then teachers and parents to promote peaceful environment and the concept that we live under the same sky but with different living standards. Similarly, we share different faiths and traditions but with different characteristics. Thus, in short school management is somewhere not providing and promoting opportunities for effective religious education this carelessness may affect the learning of children.After the whole research the major aspect I found that religious education has great importance and it is a compulsory part of education in other religions including Christianity, and Buddhism. Being an Islamic state there is a need to focus more seriously towards religious education as an effective part of children education. As it is found in researches that use of curricula, teaching and learning materials introduced the learners to an understanding and an appreciation of their cultural heritage. So, the teaching methods for RE should be based on practical, participatory and contextualized learning techniques that are linked to the community’s social, cultural and religious needs. 8. Recommendations:
Religious education should be included in curriculum with authentic knowledge.
Religious must be a part of curriculum not only on content base it should be integrated with student’s daily life.
The existing condition of curriculum has already the religious concept but there is need to teach and develop instructional approaches according to understanding level of student’s concept and synthesis process should be implemented.
According to children’s age different programs should be arrange related to knowledge about religious, moral and Islamic teachings.
Quranic ayah and Hadees should be introduced through the impatient instructive stories in the course at primary level.
School management should promote religious education through tableaus, dramas and use of multimedia at primary level.
Arrangement of Naat and speeches competition related to religious topics can be the cause of promotion and religious spirit.
Educational institutions should arrange the celebration of religious festivals as well as religious historical days.
Most important school management should coordinate with parents and ask for their opinions for enhancing religious teaching.